Tauron is one of the twelve colonies of Kobol. Tauron is the most distant colony from the system's sun and the landing place of the Galleon, the ship that brought the tribes from Kobol. The Taurons are extremely proud of their standing as the first among the Twelve Colonies. In the early days, they flaunted that position and took credit for other colonies' successes. After all, no one would be there if not for them. The Taurons' superiority eventually wore thin, and the screaming got really loud when the Taurons challenged the Gemenese interpretation of the Sacred Scrolls. Fighting started immediately after.
Despite instigating much of the tension in the early colony years, the Taurons eventually withdrew from the fighting. They preferred to further the technology aboard the Galleon. The Taurons claim to have built the Galleon for the Lords of Kobol. No one challenged them as it was all ancient history, and that left the Taurons in complete control of the most advanced science in the system.
The Taurons made good use of the resource, developing much of the new machinery used throughout the colonies. They amassed huge fortunes and heavily influenced the course of scientific development. Over the centuries, though, the Taurons pulled away from the peoples of the other worlds. Their reverence for technology was unnerving and some wondered privately whether the Tauron inventors were more devoted to their creations than to the gods. Maybe there was some truth to that. They did create the silica strands used in Cylon brains.
Tauron is a harsh, frigid world and its people reflect this. They're born of brawny stock and tend to be tall and muscular, thick in body and mind. They're often called stubborn and sometimes insubordinate. They can argue just to argue and rarely give up, even when they're wrong.